br Materials and methods br Results Baseline demographic
Materials and methods
Results Baseline demographic, health and neighborhood characteristics of the study apexbio calculator are presented in Table 1. Mean age at baseline was 37.4 (±4.6) and 49.0% of participants are female. Mean BMI at baseline was 25.0 and 21.4% of participants indicated they were current smokers. At baseline, there were 78 (27.9%), 108 (38.9%) and 94 (33.6%) participants living in high, moderate and low SES neighborhoods respectively. The average amount of time participants spent in MVPA at baseline was 86.7 (±55.1)min per day. Approximately 181 (64.6%) study participants had a mean time spent in MVPA that was ≥60min and 261 (93.2%) had a mean time spent in MVPA that was ≥30min. The proportion of men that engaged in an average of ≥60min of MVPA was significantly greater than women (p<0.0001). At baseline, men were more likely to be a smoker compared to women (p=0.01). Men also had a higher BMI (p<0.0001) and engaged in more minutes of MVPA (p=0.02) on average compared to women. Male participants, on average, engaged in about 15 more minutes of MVPA per day compared to female participants at baseline. Multilevel models fitted to examine change in MVPA over time are displayed in Table 2. Results from Model A suggested that the linear effect of time was statistically significant. On average, time spent in MVPA increased 14min each year among study participants (p<0.0001). Crude analyses (i.e. Model B) indicated that compared to individuals in low SES neighborhoods, no significant differences in average change in MVPA occurred among participants residing in moderate SES neighborhoods (0.38) and high SES neighborhoods (0.75). The multivariate adjusted model, Model C, suggested that male sex was positively associated with average initial level of MVPA (p=0.002), but not average change in MVPA over time (p=0.15). No other covariates and interactions were statistically significant. There were no significant differences in average initial level of MVPA (p=0.55) or average change in MVPA (p=0.48) between participants residing in low SES neighborhoods and moderate SES neighborhoods. Additionally, there were no significant differences in average initial level of MVPA (p=0.40) or average change in MVPA (p=0.62) between participants residing in low SES neighborhoods and high SES neighborhoods. Goodness-of-fit statistics showed that Model C, the adjusted model, had the best fit. Model D and Model E in Table 2 are stratified multilevel models fitted to examine differences in change in MVPA over time between males and females respectively. Among males only, a significant increase in MVPA over the 24 month assessment period was observed (p<0.0001). Among males and females, the multivariable adjusted model showed that no covariates or interaction terms were statistically significant. Therefore, no difference in average initial level of MVPA or change in MVPA over time was detected between the neighborhood SES groups.
Discussion Results from this research revealed no association between neighborhood SES and change in MVPA over time in new Cuban immigrants. Multilevel models fitted to explore change in MVPA among participants in the current study indicated that, on average, participants were highly active. Mean amount of time spent in MVPA at baseline was calculated to be 86.7min, on average, over the 3 consecutive days of assessment. Over 90% of the study participants averaged at least 30min of MVPA per day. Furthermore, physical activity increased approximately 14.1min among individuals regardless of neighborhood SES. NHANES data suggest that less than less than 5% of general population of US adults engage in MVPA for at least 30min a day (Trojano, Berrigan, & Dodd, 2008). Considering the CDC recommends 150min of moderate activity per week, this study population was very active compared to the US adult population (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). Results indicated that neighborhood SES was not associated with change in MVPA in males and females. Both men and women, on average, appeared to experience an increase in time spent in MVPA per week over the 24 month assessment period; however, this increase was not statistically significant in women.