br Antioxidant effect ROS is
Antioxidant effect ROS is implicated in many pathogenic processes including inflammation and cancer. Detoxification of ROS by antioxidants provides a measure of protection against these diseases, therefore natural plant components, especially antioxidants, are of great interest. Ampelopsin possesses excellent antioxidant activity due to its similarity with tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) . It is well known that free radicals can induce lipid oxidation in biomembranes, and damage of the cell membrane is the basis for tissue damage and for the pathological processes of many diseases. Similarly, exogenous damage is also strongly correlated with free radical reactions. Ampelopsin has previously demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect on H2O2-induced oxidative damage in cell-free systems including red blood troglitazone and in vitro cell cultures . This is due to the scavenging of free radicals by ampelopsin, which reduces radical-induced lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and inhibits MDA generation. Similarly, ampelopsin has been reported to significantly inhibit superoxide anion radical activity and lipid peroxidation of liver homogenate and mitochondria during stimulation of auto-oxidation and induced-oxidation, and the inhibitory effect of ampelopsin on free radicals and lipid peroxidation is concentration-dependent [3,58]. Therefore, ampelopsin exhibits favorable antioxidant activity that may mitigate cellular oxidative stress and stimulate the potential of cellular vitality, thus accomplishing the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and other diseases.
Conclusion Naturally occurring substances derived from diets or dietary supplements such as Rattan tea provide a new approach for the prevention or therapeutic treatment of chronic diseases. Ampelopsin, as the predominant compound in Rattan tea, possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity whereby it can inhibit the activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt pathways, and inhibit oxidative stress by scavenging free radicals and attenuating lipid oxidation as well as reducing ROS levels. Furthermore, ampelopsin appears to both reduce the risk of cancer and regulate blood glucose and lipids, although the underlying mechanisms associated with the capabilities remain to be further explored. Future in vitro experimental studies and in vivo clinical studies should focus on not only the understanding these mechanisms, but also the development of ampelopsin as a chemopreventive agent to treat a wide range of diseases.
Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with increasing prevalence all over the world. According to the International Diabetes Federation, there was approximately 366 million people suffered from DM (aged 20–79 years) in 2011 and micronucleus figure would climb up to 552 million by the year of 2030 . All forms of DM are characterized by hyperglycemia and the development of diabetes-specific complications. In addition to infection and premature death, diabetic complications include macrovascular and microvascular diseases such as cerebrovascular disorders, myocardial infarction, limb amputation, blindness, renal failure, and a variety of debilitating neuropathies . All these complications can result in disastrous consequences of economic and social systems, but many synthetic drugs used today failed to complete a long-term glycemic control and alter the course of diabetic complications. Clinically, novel treatments with fewer side effects are desirable for the control of DM and its complications. Interest in the use of plant extracts that possess widespread biological functions has increased in recent years. Myricetin (3,5,7,3′,4′,5′-hexahydroxyflavone cannabiscetin) (Fig. 1) is a natural flavonol from fruits, vegetables, tea, berries, red wine and medical plants . The dietary intake of myricetin from our foods is about 0.98–1.1mg per day, which is quite higher than some other flavonols . Moreover, this flavonol has a unique chemical structure. The combined contribution of hydroxyl groups at 3, 5 positions and three continuous hydroxyl groups at position 3′, 4′ and 5′ can increase the antioxidant effectiveness of myricetin, but the presence of six hydroxyl groups can decrease its hydrophobicity, which may be the negative factor [5,6]. Recently, the health benefits of myricetin have been demonstrated. Apart from antioxidative and cytoprotective effects, anti-carcinogenic actions, antiviral and antimicrobial properties, and anti-platelet activity, various studies have illustrated that myricetin is one of hypoglycemic components from plant sources [7–12].