Siirt a city in southeastern
Siirt, a city in southeastern Turkey, and the surrounding residential areas are characterized by traditional houses built in an interesting manner. The main structural materials of this building type, which exists solely in this region in Turkey, are stone and gypsum. The initial date when this extraordinary building type was first encountered in Siirt and in the surrounding area is unknown. However, these houses have not yet been properly investigated; previous studies on these houses in Siirt were limited in terms of both photos and plan drawings. The reasons for creating this building type were examined in the present study. These houses are greatly appreciated by local people because of their special features that keep the house warm in winter and cool throughout summer. An annex added to the building, a consequence of form changes over time, was also investigated in this study. In this study, an environmental survey was conducted in the area within the villages of Tillo, Bağtepe, Dereyamaç(Fersaf), (Tom), Çatılı (Sinep), and Çınarlısu (Hatrant) to research the construction techniques and materials of rural vernacular architecture of Siirt. These villages in the area used the same construction technique and materials. However, this study focused on Tillo because of the well-preserved construction pattern, and information could be collected from villagers, local masters, and local authorities (Fig. 2).
Discussion and results Although many examples of such houses can be found in smaller residential units around Siirt, the truncated pyramid-shaped houses may become extinct, because many of them have been abandoned because of emigration or have been neglected and left unrestored over time (Fig. 17). These traditional houses could have been preserved adequately; however, they nuciferine have practically disappeared, particularly in the city center of Siirt. Only a few houses in the area have survived, and one of these houses was restored in an effort to preserve it as an original example for visitors (Fig. 18).
Conclusion The traditional houses in and around Siirt incorporate a series of concepts in their structure:
Introduction Current evidence suggests that by 2050, an 80% reduction in carbon emissions will be required by developed countries to avoid the damaging levels of climate change (AEA Technology Report, 2010). The refurbishment of old buildings could cut in carbon emissions of the UK by up to 60% by 2050 (Power, 2010). According to estimates by Carbon Trust, non-domestic buildings in the UK account for close to 20% of all carbon emissions (Kelly, 2010). Essentially, significant savings could be made through the improvement of energy efficiency in non-domestic heritage stock if long-term emissions are to be reduced. Thus, reduction in CO2 emissions and the national dependency on finite fossil fuel resources can be achieved via major conversion/refurbishment of HBPs. This objective underscores a need to investigate energy use in buildings at both local and global levels to identify practical solutions at each level. Using energy inefficient buildings locally will lead to greater energy consumption and wasteful utilization of resources with global effects. Meanwhile, if local problems are not sufficiently addressed, then they become global most especially when they are allowed to happen on an everyday basis all over the world. Therefore, seeking other possible approaches and sustainable solutions to curtail energy use in heritage buildings is important. According to Cassar (2009, p. 7), historic buildings must also fully engage in the process of “adaptation to climate change,” lest they become redundant and succumb to “environmental obsolescence.” Recommending a “long life, loose fit” strategy to managing historic buildings, the author implies that sustainable design practices must adapt to the particular circumstances of each building rather than be applied broadly to the entire built environment.