crf hormone Scanning Tunneling Electron Microscope STEM imag
Scanning Tunneling Electron Microscope (STEM) images in Fig. 6 show numerous nano-precipitations with the size of 5–10nm inside the sample of (PbTe)0.75(PbSe)0.20(PbS)0.05.
Fig. 7 represents the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT values of the compounds and the other comparing materials as indicated from the references.
The sample of (PbTe)0.75(PbSe)0.20(PbS)0.05 crf hormone obtains the highest ZT more than 2.2, which is higher than those of previously reported ones, as indicated from the references.
Fig. 8 presents the comparative values of engineering (a) and efficiency η (b) in terms of temperature difference ΔT at = 300 K for various compounds as indicated. The (PbTe)0.75(PbSe)0.20(PbS)0.05 sample shows both the highest (ZT)eng of 0.75 and efficiency of 11% comparing with that of the previous reports.
Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Samsung Research Funding Centre of Samsung Electronics under Project no. SRFC-TA1403-02. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurement was conducted in Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) in Daejeon, Korea.
Data Data of TOF-SIMS analysis in this article provide information on the integration of three metal ions, Cu2+, Co2+ and Cr3+, in a calcium phosphate cement matrix. The distribution of Cu2+, Cr3+ and Co2+ in the crystalline matrix is visualized (Fig. 1).
Experimental design, materials and methods Cement samples were prepared using β-tricalcium phosphate powder doped with 50mmol Cu2+, Co2+ and Cr3+ per mol as described by Schamel et al. . The TOF-SIMS analysis was done with a TOF-SIMS5 machine from the IONTOF GmbH Münster equipped with a Bismuth-cluster-source. Data evaluation was performed using the Surfacelab software version 6.5. For the measurement the samples were bombarded by Bi3+ primary ions under high vacuum conditions. Due to the impact of the primary ions secondary particles from the sample surface were emitted. The charged particles, or the so called secondary ions, were collected by the analyzer and separated by their mass to charge ratio, as all particles have the same kinetic energy. By rasterizing the primary ion beam over the sample surface, the distribution of each component can be imaged with high lateral resolution. A more detailed description of the method can be found elsewhere . For the analyses regions of 150 × 150μm2 were measured within 50scans using the spectrometry mode which provided a mass resolution m/Δm at (C2H5+) m/z=29,04 of ~4000 and a lateral resolution of less than 10μm. The spectra were calibrated using the following signals: H+, H2+, C+, CH3+, C2H5+, C3H3+. The images given in Fig. 1 are plotted as overlays where Ca2PO4+ is shown in red, Cu+ in blue, Co+ in yellow and Cr+ in green color. As ToF-SIMS is not a quantitative method by itself, these analyses do not reveal information about the content of metal ions in the different samples.
Acknowledgements The work was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG; in part by the collaborative research centre Transregio 79 and by Grant no.: GB 1/12-2 and GE 1133/13-2).
Data Ti-6Al-4V implants were synthesized by selective laser melting and subsequently biofunctionalized using the electrochemical plasma electrolytic oxidation process. Scanning electron microscopy was performed at various time points from to 300s during plasma electrolytic oxidation and is presented in Figs. 1–3. The provided data are part of the experimental results in previous work by the authors .
Experimental design, materials and methods Ti-6Al-4V implants were manufactured using a selective laser melting printer (SLM-125, Realizer, Borchem, Germany). Specimens were produced from medical grade (grade 23, ELI) Ti-6Al-4V powder (AP&C, Boisbriand, Quebec, Canada) with particle size between 10 and 45µm and spherical particle morphology. Process parameters were 400W laser source, layer thickness of 50µm, laser spot size of 145µm, layer thickness of 50µm and exposure time of 300µs. After selective laser melting, loose powder was removed by vacuum cleaning and samples were thoroughly cleaned by ultrasonication in acetone, 96% ethanol and demineralized water for 5min subsequently.