br On architecture For Banham the question is
On architecture For Banham the question is crystal clear concerning its design quality in response to human needs (Banham, 1975: 154, 1999: 13). Banham speaks of human needs in its contemporariness. Of course, human needs are not simply in terms of utility and accessibility. Banham understands the needs in the broadest sense of the word “function” that brings about the effect of spectacular aspects concerning the contemporary design. Function and design as entry points of architectural criticism are undoubtedly not Banham invention. Since the beginning of the 1900s architectural criticism has explored various aspects of architectural presence beyond its stylistic idiosyncrasy. Since then architectural criticism has dealt with several different aspects of function ranging from pragmatic to symbolic dimension (Ligo, 1984: 97). On the other hand, design, as a crucial aspect of the architectural theory, history and criticism of the 20th modern movement in architecture, is probably one important point of the contribution of Banham that concerns the discourse of architecture. The thing of architecture, if for Banham, is not about the look, but the quality of experience in its space, construction, form, and material. The question concerning architecture remains seemingly nebulous if we do not trace back its conceptual origin. Marcus Pollio Vitruvius (80–70 BC–15 AD) is probably the first architectural theorist who has handed down “architectura” and “architectus” as concepts to us in his book: “De Architectura Libri Decem” from the Roman Augustan Period (Granger, 2008: ix–xxviii). Vitruvius does not provide us with the definition of architecture, but he does give us principles so that one is able to qualify whether a building work belongs to architecture or not. Even though in ancient Greek language it special info is hard to find the word “architecture”, the concept is probably composed by two words: archi (first, origin, principle, chief)+tecton (carpenter, builder) or techne (expertise of making things) or technites (skilled person, master craftsman). Vitruvian architectus stems probably from the Greek word architecton meaning master builder. With respect to the Greek concept archi, architect and architecture are associated with something original, creative, and excellent in terms of production. The notion of archi denotes the creative capacity of production as well as the originality of its form, function and construction. To a certain extent, architecture is about building works which are technically, functionally, and aesthetically phenomenal. Indeed, something phenomenal is at the capacity that shows itself as somewhat innovative in dealing with human condition. In dealing with human condition, Vitruvius in his book gave some criteria of training for architects which have been mostly incorporated in architectural education today. In short, an architect is a cultural person with well-rounded knowledge and skills of planning, designing, constructing, and managing the built environment which is safe, convenient, healthy, and attractive. In the course of time, architecture evolves in its representations, structures, and meanings. However, there is something permanent that, as a concept, architecture is not for any building work, but in some ways concerns masterpieces. Because of this quality, architectural history comes into discourse. In addition, Banham values architecture in its masterpiece\'s characters that rests upon the authority and felicity with which they give expression to a view of men in relation to environment. In modern context, architecture is not any more a privilege of a few social milieu and classes, but democratically accessible for all people. Modernity liberates architecture from its social exclusiveness and makes it accessible and affordable for all in terms of property and public art. All this is mad possible because of the rationalization of the modern design and the technological production system. In other words, modern science and technology enables architects, artists, and builders to present a new architecture in history. In the words of Gropius (1965: 20), this new architecture is the inevitable logical product of the intellectual, social, and technical conditions of our age. Modern culture of architectural design is nothing but the response to the engagement with the contemporariness. Then, what is history for art and architecture?