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  • Furthermore many potential risk factors were examined in the


    Furthermore, many potential risk factors were examined in the current study, which contained a broad array of factors. Based on such a classification, groups of some factors were earlier referenced in the literature. Although the distribution of association between some risk factors and SRH were similar to those distributions found in some published papers, the resulting analysis described in previous studies have been verified in this order Flavopiridol hydrochloride study. In Models I–III, age, low income, trust level, education level, 2 weeks of illness, and hospitalization have mostly a significant effect on poor SRH among migrant laborers. What cannot be ascertained is the evidence of association between BMI and SRH in migrant laborers. Previous research has shown that high levels of BMI were related to cardiovascular risk, mortality, and worse SRH. However, the association between weight and SRH was not significant among migrant laborers in China. The data indicated that alcohol consumption and SRH are related. Some studies showed that excess alcohol consumption increased poor SRH and physical illness such as cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and vascular disease, whereas appropriate alcohol consumption was good for SRH in Chinese migrant laborers. In Model IV, the effects of three groups of factors were explored together, and some risk factors became nonsignificant in association with SRH during different groups. Age, income, working hours, and veritable psychosocial factors appeared to have a significant effect on SRH. It is worth mentioning that 2 weeks of illness was more significant compared to hospitalization in SRH among migrant laborers.
    Acknowledgments This work was supported by Zhejiang Natural Science Foundation (No. LQ15G030011 and LQ16G030011). Data used in this paper is from the China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS) by the Center for Social Science Survey at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China. We express our deep gratitude to them.
    Introduction Most chronic liver injuries including alcoholic disorder, viral hepatitis, biliary obstruction, or hemochromatosis consequently lead to hepatic fibrosis, a critical step which is instrumental in deciding the clinical outcome of liver disease. The liver can function to facilitate the biochemical conversion of administered substances which significantly increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. A single dose of thioacetamide (TAA), a hepatotoxic agent, could produce centrilobular hepatic necrosis, while a chronic administration can lead to fibrosis or cirrhosis. It is assumed that oxidative stress contributes to the development of TAA-induced liver fibrosis. It has also been suggested that ROS is one of the important factors in cytokine-induced liver fibrogenesis by TAA induction. A high ROS level effectively induces apoptosis, probably through an activation of the endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptotic pathway. While transient and low-grade ER stress can be overcome by the unfolded protein response, persistent and severe ER stress results in cell apoptosis and also stimulates inflammatory responses. Antioxidant supplements may emerge as potentially antifibrotic agents by either protecting hepatocytes from ROS or inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Our previous reports indicated that enhanced liver antioxidant capacities in high-cholesterol/fat dietary hamsters or alcohol-diet fed mice supplemented with noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) (NJ) result from the polyphenolic contents in NJ. In addition, an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins (collagen) is often observed in liver fibrosis. The injured liver cells stimulate HSCs to transform into myofibroblast-like cells which secrete large amounts of collagen, thereby producing liver fibrosis. Increasingly, ROS are viewed as a candidate driver of HSC activation and collagen I upregulation. However, downstream mediators for the ROS on the activation of HSCs and the increased collagen synthesis could be a potential avenue to alleviate liver fibrosis and inflammation.